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4成加人花粉过敏 春季防过敏7种途径 [复制链接]

发表于 2015-11-27 23:10:19 |显示全部楼层
随着春季的来临,很多人又开始了一年一度的季节性过敏,有的人对树木花粉过敏,还有的人对草过敏,症状都差不多,不停打喷嚏,眼睛痒得令人难受,很多人把眼睛揉得又红又肿。
医生们说,对于季节性过敏,其实是有办法来对付的。


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渥太华的微生物学家弗朗西斯·科茨说,春风是传播树木花粉的第一因素,如果有人对一种以上的树木过敏,就会感到自己的过敏症状尤其严重。  
她还说,通常,如果天气炎热的话,则会缩短树木花粉的开花出芽的季节,从而意味着过敏的人会少受点罪。
虽然已经进行了20多年的数据收集和研究,弗朗西斯·科茨并发现季节性过敏存在明显的整体模式,因为每个树种、花种在每年不同的天气条件下都有着不同的反应。
多伦多的过敏症专家贾森·李医生表示,他经常听到过敏的人抱怨自己的过敏症状每年都越来越糟,但实际上未必如此。他说,季节性过敏的程度主要是由树木、花木以及草的数量决定的,这些因素的变动是不大的。
尽量躲避花粉,不得已再用药  
卡伦·宾克利博士是多伦多大学的过敏和临床免疫学家,他针对过敏和哮喘患者撰写了一本指南。  
两位医生贾森·李和宾克利都建议,人们首先应该尝试以不用药的方法来应对过敏,实在不行再转向药物治疗。
他们归纳了7种途径:
保持门窗关闭,以防树木花粉进到室内;
去外面活动时戴上环绕封闭式太阳镜,防止树木花粉进入眼中;
用盐水冲洗鼻腔;
如果鼻腔因过敏堵塞,睡觉时可以使用帖在鼻子上的鼻腔扩张条;  
使用非处方药,如抗组胺药,鼻腔喷雾剂或眼药水; 加拿大 51网
使用口含过敏含片;
接受过敏注射。 info.51.ca
宾克利医生在接受采访时说,只有在其他一切措施都无效时,才去做过敏注射,过敏注射是最后一步。因为过敏注射不一定都所有的人有效,而且要反复注射,所以这真是最后不得已的措施。但他同时表示,到目前为止,各种药可以帮助人们挨过至少一个季度,但药物的效率不如注射那么快。
贾森·李医生说,如果选择过敏注射,患者需要每个星期定期去医生那里打针,而且这种针剂附带有轻微的过敏反应,死亡风险为每250万人中有1人。
基尔斯滕是李医生的一位患者,她刚刚接受了第一次过敏针剂注射,她说,她不停地流鼻涕、眼睛痒,而且因为她有哮喘,过敏使她更感到呼吸困难。  
过去,基尔斯滕一直靠非处方药物来对付过敏,但她很不喜欢这些药物带的镇静副作用。
现在出现了一种针对草过敏的新药物,这是一种含在舌头下的药片,每日服用,可以减少免疫系统对草的敏感性。
贾森·李医生说,从本质上讲,这种药使你接触到过敏原的程度慢慢上升,似乎是在诱发一种免疫反应。他还说,现在这种药针对的是草过敏,不久将可能出现针对所有过敏原的类似药品。  
现在,科研人员还在研制一种树木花粉过敏疫苗,已经进入了临床试验阶段。

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