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我用风筝航拍(地面取景,遥控拍摄。欢迎参与、交流) [复制链接]

发表于 2016-4-10 22:50:02 |显示全部楼层

















     

风筝摄影介绍

    从空中俯拍大地美景是很多摄影人的梦想,载人机、无人机、飞艇、气球都可以做到,但前期投入比较大而且都受到空中管制的制约,只适合于专业的航拍公司作为商业投资运营。有没有即投入小又不受空管的航拍方法呢?答案是肯定的—风筝航拍!它具有携带方便、空中稳定、拍摄费极低,而且不受空管的限制。下面介绍的就是一个利用风筝空中摄影的器材。它已由某电子公司申请专利。
  
风筝航拍由一下部分组成:
1、风筝;
2、云台稳定装置;
3、可控云台及相机;
4、地面取景图像接收装置;
5、指令发送装置;
6、视频录制器(可不用,不影响拍摄照片)。
    风筝:由两只组成(根据风大小选用一只或两只),每只风筝的长边1.5m,短边1.3米。适合2-5级风,5级以上建议不要放飞了,风太大操控风筝会感到困难。制作风筝要用质量较好的材料,我选用了航空飞行伞面料,碳素纤维杆做支撑,按照设计的方案由专门制作风筝的师傅加工。风筝线的选择也很重要。一定要选高质量的风筝线(包括拉力、柔软性、耐磨、重量),我选用了200磅的凯夫拉线,此线熔点高,强度高;
    云台稳定装置:它有两个作用,除了稳定云台和相机外,还是连接风筝和云台必不可少的部分,有了它可大大减少相机的晃动,从而使相机的快门速度降得更低。对它没有什么特殊要求,只要转动灵活质量轻就可以;
    可控云台及相机:云台就是连接相机的部分,主要由支架和低转速电机构成,为减轻重量用高强度合金铝制作支架,低速电机选用每分钟5转的较合适,功率在0.5-1W,选用尽量轻寿命长的优质产品,电压要适合整个设备的电源电压。一个电机用于水平360°旋转,另一个负责相机的垂直90°旋转作俯视角调整,俯仰的停留位置由限位开关决定,这样在作垂直俯拍时很快可以找到与地面垂直位置。我们称可控云台(或叫遥控云台),它肯定配有一套遥控接收机,实际上它还包括视频发射机,就是把地面发出的控制指令转变为云台或相机动作。另一方面还要把相机的取景信号发送给地面接收机。相机的选择要根据自己对照片的要求来决定,开始可以用有快门输入口的卡片机,动手能力强的爱好者也可自制快门线,这样就可选择任意型号的相机。
    地面取景图像接收装置由两部分组成:一是1200-2400MHz无线接收机,另一是液晶图像显示器,可以选择MP4,也可以选择小型液晶电视、电子相框、便携DVD等等,根据爱好者自己的喜好来选择。接收机把接收到的图像信号传给液晶显示器达到地面实时监控取景的效果。
指令发送装置:控制和地面取景采用的是双向无线传输。通过操作遥控器可控制相机水平大于360°(任意角度)旋转、垂直俯仰角90°度,并可视不同相机来控制变焦、光圈、速度及快门的操作。相机上下转动时装有限位开关,可自动停止在向下正俯视的位置;地面1—3分钟无发射信号时,空中接收机部分自动进入休眠状态(根据需要,适用于长时间停留空中节约电能),地面发出任意控制信号可激活空中接收机。
   视频录制器:如果不需要视频录制,这部分可省略。

几种航拍设备(非载人)的优缺点比较:
  • 设备种类:  投入成本    拍摄成本    抗风能力           备  注
  • 遥控飞机         高             高               中             成本高、费用高、专业
  • 气  球              低             中               差             有风不能拍摄
  • 风  筝              低             低               强             无风不能拍摄



    可见气球和风筝的不足是可以互补的,只是气球拍摄成本高一些(氦气较贵)而且需申报控管,遥控飞机训练成本投入较大不适合一般的业余爱好者航拍。气球的抗风能力差,即使风不大空中钟摆现象也比较明显,而且受空管的限制;风筝放飞后在空中是迎风而飞,自动调整方向,自然也就增加了它的抗摇摆能力。加装特殊的稳定装置后,进一步稳定了相机,快门速度可低至1/60。不受空管的限制,携带方便,不耗油,不充气,大大降低了拍摄费用。
    风筝拍摄的操作步骤是先起飞风筝,当风筝升高20-30米稳定后,装稳定器和云台,再把相机及传输线连接好,测试云台及相机的遥控功能,正常后就测试升力---看设备随风筝上升,还是设备把风筝向下拉,前者可继续升高风筝(设备随之升高)并观察相机的拍摄位置是否合适,位置不合适可做调整。后者则说明风力不够,或增加风筝,或等待风力或另选时间。当经过一段时间练习后,你就可判断出风的大小能不能满足拍摄。
     总之,风筝摄影是一种适合业余航拍爱好者的低成本拍摄方法。操作者能从中感受到很多乐趣,同时收获很多常人难以得到的高视角照片。

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